Generally, local government council members, who include the mayor or president and councillors, do not have any authority to act or make decisions as individuals. They are members of an elected body that makes decisions on behalf of a local government through a formal meeting process.
Included with this fact sheet is a “Snapshot of the role” to provide some context for the most useful attributes . The role of each councillor is to:
Key concept: A councillor is a member of a team, shaping the district’s future in consultation with the community.
Councillors represent the interests of all electors and residents. The representational role of a councillor does not mean that he or she has a duty to support all suggestions made. A councillor should consider the varying views of the community and then make decisions in the best interests of the whole district.
Councillors represent the community’s interests in many ways. They can pass on electors’ views, support initiatives, and report complaints and problems they perceive, by informing the CEO or raising such matters in council meetings. The representation of electors’ views is complicated in councils that operate under a ward system. Here, the councillor has both a duty to present the views of electors in his or her ward and to consider the good of the district as a whole when making a decision.
Explanation: A ward system occurs when the district is divided into sections for electoral purposes. These wards often reflect communities of interest within a district. For example, in the district of Ashburton there are six wards: Ashburton, Onslow, Pannawonica, Paraburdoo, Tableland and Tom Price.
People often look to their elected representatives to provide leadership and guidance. This can be done by highlighting directions that could be followed, putting forward options, and presenting arguments or possible solutions to a problem at community forums and council meetings.
Developing a vision for the community and deciding what needs to be done to achieve that vision is an important role for council members. Convincing the community to endorse and follow that vision (and associated plans) requires leadership.
It is important to recognise that the most fundamental task is trying to achieve a strong sense of shared purpose and commitment. The needs and desires of the community are constantly changing and evolving. Councillors must be prepared to initiate new policies and activities in response to these changes.
To be effective, council members need to understand the views of the people they represent. Communication is a multi-faceted process that needs to flow both ways to be effective. Councillors provide information to the community about the policies and decisions of council, and the community relays its desires, concerns and opinions to the council through the councillors.
To represent both electors and the council effectively, a councillor needs to be a good communicator and keep in touch with the local community.
Councillors can keep in touch with electors in a variety of ways including:
Key concept: If you explain to electors why and how decisions were made in council, they are less likely to be critical when decisions do not go their way.
The policy making role of a councillor includes:
To initiate new policies and activities successfully, a councillor will often need to gather information and obtain advice. This may be achieved through the council staff, following an approach to the CEO.
However, it should be remembered that while a policy may begin with an individual idea, decisions are not made by the individual councillor alone. They are made by the whole council.
This democratic process means that a councillor must accept the majority decision when the council votes upon a motion. Consequently, if a council member feels strongly about an issue, and does not have a conflict of interest in the matter, he or she should present a well-constructed and researched argument during the debate on the motion. If the result of the vote is against the wishes of an individual councillor, he or she should accept that result graciously. Each council member has the right to have their dissent recorded in the minutes.
All local governments must plan for the future, and this process starts with a Strategic Community Plan and a Corporate Business Plan.
The Strategic Community Plan is a 10-year plan which states the aspirations, vision and objectives of the community, and needs to be developed with input from the community and adopted by council.
The local government’s administration then needs to develop a four-year Corporate Business Plan which prioritises all the important projects, services and activities needed to implement the Strategic Community Plan. It should state how much each will cost, what assets will be involved, and who will implement them.
It is recommended that the Corporate Business Plan be developed using “Informing strategies”, particularly asset management, long term financial planning and workforce planning. These inform the local government how capable it is of delivering the services requested by the community. Informing strategies about specific issues, such as community safety or major infrastructure works, also assist the local government to deliver these services.
Council does not need to approve the operational plan or business unit plans referenced in the Corporate Business Plan, but should regard the community’s long-term objectives and the local government’s capacity to deliver when deciding its priorities.
Council can review the Strategic Community Plan every two years through a “desktop review”, to make sure it is meeting the changing needs of the community. Council is required to conduct a major review of the plan every four years. The council will also review the Corporate Business Plan annually, to respond to changes inside and outside the local government. This process also helps council in setting the annual budget.
More information is available in the DLGSC’s Integrated Planning and Reporting Framework and Guidelines publication.
All local government services and projects are delivered with assets. Local government assets include everything from roads, bridges, buildings and parks, to computers and telephones, software and intellectual property (IP).
Although assets are managed by the local government’s administration, council has responsibility for making sure that the community gets the best possible value from its assets. It does this by setting affordable and achievable priorities in the Corporate Business Plan, and by making sure that the local government’s Asset Management Strategy is developed and implemented, with appropriate resources for that process.
More information is available in the DLGSC’s Asset Management Framework and Guidelines publication.
The local government’s Corporate Business Plan and Long Term Financial Plan will set out the projects, services and activities that the local government will deliver and how much these will cost. This information is used by council in the setting and adoption of the annual budget.
Throughout the year, reports are prepared to enable councillors to review council finances, ensure that the council is adhering to its budgets or make appropriate modifications. As with all local government business, finance is a matter for discussion and resolution by the full council. Nevertheless, the individual councillor should maintain an active interest in budgeting since the council is responsible to the community for the results achieved. A councillor may also be called upon to explain the results to the community.
More information is available in the DLGSC’s Long Term Financial Planning Framework and Guidelines publication.
Another aspect of the councillor’s role is to review policy occasionally. This involves assessing whether a policy is fulfilling the community’s needs at any given time and examining the costs associated with the policy’s implementation.
To review activities effectively, councillors need to obtain relevant information from both community members and local government staff through appropriate channels.
Important to note: People who are prompted to stand because of one local issue need to appreciate that a) they will be responsible for a much wider range of issues if elected, and b) may not be able to be involved in decisions on that issue if they have a conflict of interest.
Council members have a duty to attend all council meetings to ensure that electors are adequately represented. In recognition of this, under the Local Government Act 1995 a councillor who is absent from three consecutive ordinary council meetings without leave being granted by the council, is automatically disqualified. If a member wishes to be absent for more than six consecutive ordinary meetings, Ministerial approval is necessary as well as council approval.
It should be noted that applications for leave of absence are usually supported but must be approved by council before (or at) the meeting(s) the council member is to be absent from. Leave of absence cannot be approved retrospectively.
Many local governments operate using a system of committees to reduce the work at council meetings. These committees are established to consider specific aspects of a local government’s operation such as finance, works, community services or planning. Each committee usually includes a small number of councillors who generally make recommendations to full council. Many councils also operate using committees which include non-elected members such as employees, consultants or community members.
The number of meetings a councillor must attend each month will vary according to the frequency of council meetings and the number of committees on which the elected member sits. (Most local governments have monthly or fortnightly council meetings and committee meetings may be held several days prior to the full council meeting or on the same day.)
Some local governments have other types of meetings outside the formal council meeting framework which allow councillors and officers to meet and discuss matters.
If a council member is present at a council meeting, he or she has a duty to vote on all matters before that meeting unless he or she has a financial interest in the matter. Therefore, it is important for councillors to read the agenda items and officers’ reports before the council meeting.
Without this background reading, it is extremely difficult for councillors to make effective assessments of issues and provide constructive input to council debate and decision making. It is also recommended that further information be requested if there is insufficient material available to make an informed decision.
Background reports and papers can often be lengthy. Consequently, councillors must set aside adequate time for preparation prior to each council meeting. The lodging of proxy votes is not permitted at meetings of council or its committees.
Because councillors are required by law to vote on all issues before the meeting, ward councillors should obtain information on, and remain informed about, issues occurring outside their ward but within other areas of the local government district.
Councillors should also endeavour to remain informed about current affairs at a state and national level. This will give an elected member a broader perspective on issues affecting council.
It is very important that a councillor ensures that all electors’ enquiries and complaints receive appropriate responses, either by telephone, email, or letter. Electors are then reassured that their local government takes notice of them.
Maintaining contact with electors, attending meetings of council, performing other civic duties and remaining informed about all relevant local issues is time consuming. This is particularly so for newly elected councillors who are unlikely to have background knowledge of many of the issues being considered.
Newly elected councillors will need to examine their present commitments and establish priorities to manage their time effectively.
If it is important for you to have the support of your family or friends. This support should be gained before standing for election. Additionally, you will often need assistants, especially for running an election campaign.
Context – the general function of local government
Why local governments exist.
The accountabilities of the position of local government councillor are:
A local government councillor is expected to:
These are the values, characteristics and commitments that are expected of a councillor:
Participate in opportunities for local government training and development provided for elected members. All candidates must complete online induction prior to nominating for election, and every council member will be expected to undertake further training within 12 months of their next election after the training provisions come into effect.
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